Includes bibliographical references (p. 209-243).
|Statement||by S. Fairhurst and C.A. Minty.|
|Series||Toxicity review ;, 21|
|Contributions||Minty, C. A.|
|LC Classifications||MLCM 93/03534 (Q)|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||243 p. ;|
|Number of Pages||243|
|LC Control Number||90151970|
Major factors governing the toxicity of chromium compounds are oxidation state and solubility. Cr(VI) compounds, which are powerful oxidizing agents and thus tend to be irritating and corrosive, appear to be much more toxic systemically than Cr(III) compounds, given similar amounts and . INORGANIC CHROMIUM(III) COMPOUNDS First draft prepared by Dr Tiina Santonen, Dr Antti Zitting, and Dr Vesa Riihimäki, Finnish um compounds - toxicity. um compounds - adverse effects. nmental exposure - adverse effect s. m allowable concentration. Hexavalent chromium is toxic and carcinogenic; its toxicity derives from its ability to diffuse through cell membranes and oxidize biological molecules [64, . Chromium is a human carcinogen primarily by inhalation exposure in occupational settings. Although lung cancer has been established as a consequence of hexavalent chromium exposure in smokers and nonsmokers, some cancers of other tissues of the gastrointestinal and central nervous systems have also been noted. Except for a few reports from China, little is known about the .
The exposure specifically to chromium (VI) compounds has been difficult to quantify, because specific forms of chromium are seldom identified in exposure studies (Edlira et al., ). Chromium VI. Chromium Compounds Hazard Summary Chromium occurs in the environment primarily in two valence states, trivalent chromium (Cr III) and hexavalent chromium (Cr VI). Exposure may occur from natural or industrial sources of chromium. Chromium III is much less toxic than chromium (VI). The respiratory tract is also the major target organ for. Chromium is a naturally occurring element found in rocks, animals, plants, soil, and in volcanic dust and gases. Chromium is present in the environment in several different forms. The most common forms are chromium(0), chromium(III), and chromium(VI). No taste or odor is associated with chromium compounds. Chromium(III) occurs naturally in the environment and is an essential nutrient. Get this from a library! Inorganic chromium(VI) compounds. [Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals.; Books Fulltext Government Publications, International Technical Reports Charts Index not Present Internet Resources: Document Type: Book: # Chromium Compounds--toxicity\/span>\n \u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\n schema.
Major factors governing the toxicity of chromium compounds are oxidation state and solubility. Chromium (VI) compounds, which are powerful oxidizing agents and, as such, tend to be irritating and corrosive, appear to be much more toxic systemically than chromium (III) compounds, given similar amounts and solubilities. Chromium toxicity refers to any poisonous toxic effect in an organism or cell that results from exposure to specific forms of chromium—especially hexavalent lent chromium and its compounds are toxic when inhaled or ingested. Trivalent chromium is a trace mineral that is essential to human nutrition. There is a hypothetical risk of genotoxicity in humans if large amounts of. Chromium poisoning remains a major cause of long-term degradation [87,89].Several approaches including (1) minimization of chromium evaporation through the use of modified alloy chemistry, (2) surface coatings, (3) chromium getters, and (4) chromium tolerant cathodes have been proposed to minimize and mitigate the long-term performance degradation and poisoning of the cathode. HUMAN CARCINOGENICITY DATA: Occupational exposure to chromium compounds has been studied in the chromate production, chromeplating and chrome pigment, ferrochromium production, gold mining, leather tanning and chrome alloy production industries. Workers in the chromate industry are exposed to both trivalent and hexavalent compounds of chromium.